4th & 5th Grade TCAP Study Guide - ELA
- Plural Rules (Nouns that are more than 1)
- Most words add –s
- Words that end in ch, sh, x, or s add –es
- Words that end in y, change the y to an i then add es
- Some words change completely. Ex: man-men and woman-women
- Some words don’t change at all. Ex: fish, deer, sheep
- Possessive Rules (When something belongs to the noun)
- If the noun is singular (one), add ’s (Example: woman’s)
- If the noun is plural (two) AND ends in s, just add ’ (Example: travelers’)
- If the noun is plural (two) and doesn’t end in s, add ’s (Example: men’s)
- ***Sometimes you will have to figure out if the noun is plural or singular to make your choice.***
- Must match who they are referring to.
- Ex: He walked out the door and tripped on her own feet. *Her is wrong. It should be his.*
- Ex: You will enjoy the park because there are lots of things for them to do. *Them is wrong. It should be you.*
- The verb must make sense and match the rest of the sentence.
- TIP: If there is a helping verb (had, have, has) choose the verb with the “n” on the end. Ex: We had not seen that in years.
- TIP: Read each sentence and slash the ones that you know are incorrect. The best way to choose the correct verb is to see which one makes sense.
- Adjectives describe nouns.
- Add –er to compare two things. (add more if the word is long!)
- Example: She was taller than him.
- Example: She was more beautiful than her friend.
- Add –est to compare more than two things. (add most if the word is long!)
- Example: She was the tallest.
- Example: She was the most beautiful of all her friends.
- Adverbs describe verbs.
- Most end in –ly.
- Ex: He was really brave when the monster came at him.
- You cannot have two negatives in a sentence. Negatives include: neither, never, not, nothing, or any contraction with not.
- Two, Too, To
- Two- #2
- Too- Too much or Also
- To- Tells direction
- There, they’re, their
- There- a place
- They’re- they are
- Their- shows ownership
- Your, you’re
- Your- shows ownership
- You’re- you are
- Dates: January 12, 2011
- Items in a Series: I want bacon, eggs, and cheese.
- Before Conjunctions: I want to go to the store, but my mom will not take me.
- After Introductory Words: Even though we were tired, we still played for hours.
- Punctuation goes inside the quotation marks.
- Use commas to separate the quote from the speaker.
- Use a capital letter at the beginning of what is said.
- Example: Mom said, “Are you sure you want to go?”
- Example: “I am sure,” I said.
- Example: “Okay,” Mom said, “we will go.”
- Sentences can be combined the following ways:
- By combining the sentences with a conjunction
- By moving one part of the sentence to the beginning and making it an introductory phrase.
Fixing Run-On Sentences
- Fix run-on sentences by:
- Writing two new sentences.
- Combining the ideas correctly with a conjunction.
- Making one of the ideas an introductory phrase at the beginning.
- Common Abbreviations
- Avenue = Ave.
- Doctor = Dr.
- Street = St.
- Drive = Dr.
- Words that are made up of two small words. Each word helps determine the meaning of the compound word. Ex: mailbox, horseback
- To Entertain- telling a story with characters, a setting, and a plot.
- To Inform- gives the reader true information and facts.
- To Persuade- is trying to get the reader to do or buy something. Speeches are usually trying to persuade.
- Sentences that match the main idea and the rest of the paragraph.
- Step 1: Find the main idea of the paragraph.
- Step 2: Choose the sentence that matches the main idea.
- Step 1: Read the entire sentence looking for clues to what the word means.
- Step 2: Plug all the choices in and see which one makes sense.
- The person or people reading or listening to your writing.
- Step 1: What is the writing about?
- Step 2: Who needs to know this? or Who cares about this?
- A 1-3 sentence recap of a passage or paragraph.
- Step 1: Find the main idea.
- Step 2: Underline important details.
- Step 3: Include the main idea and details into a complete sentence.
- Remember: Do this for each paragraph of a passage if the questions asks for a summary of the entire passage.
- Fact: a statement that can be proven to be true.
- Opinion: a statement that cannot be proven and often includes how someone feels.
- Sometimes people include visuals or graphics (pictures) with their writing.
- Step 1: The picture must match the main idea.
- Step 2: Choose the one that would help the writing the best.
- What a story or passage is mostly about.
- Step 1: Underline the key words. (Only the important ones!)
- Step 2: Write one sentence with the key words.
- Step 3: Find the choice that best matches your sentence.
- Irrelevant means that it does not match or go along with the rest of the story.
- Step 1: Find the main idea.
- Step 2: Find the sentence that does not match the main idea.
- TIP: The irrelevant sentence may seem like it fits but you have to be very careful.
- Concluding means the ending or very last sentence.
- Must match the main idea of the story.
- Never adds new details to the story.
- Used at the end of a story or paragraph
- Therefore, finally, in conclusion, as a result
- Adding details to a story
- In addition to, furthermore, similarly, however
- Remember: Plug all the choices in the sentence and see which one makes since in the sentence AND in the story.
- Step 1: Read all the steps or sentences.
- Step 2: Draw your dashes ____ ____ ____ ____
- Step 3: Read the sentences or paragraphs and put the number in the correct slash.
- Step 4: Find the answer that matches your slashes.
- Reliable means it is good information to use and you can count on it being correct.
- Read all the choices and choose the best and most reliable source for the question.
- Atlas- book of maps
- Encyclopedia- gives information on people, places, history and things.
- Newspaper- gives information on current and local events.
- Websites- websites that end in .gov, .org, or .edu are the most reliable
Moods and Feelings from Pictures
- Pictures can often make the viewer feel a certain way or put them in a certain mood.
- Look at the picture. Write down a few words that come to mind.
- Look at the choices. Mark off any that are completely wrong.
- Choose the best one by comparing it to what you thought about the picture and the picture itself.
- Synonyms- words that mean the same or nearly the same. Ex: sad and depressed
- Antonyms- words that mean the opposite. Ex: ancient and new
Sequence (Before and After)
- If a question asks you what happens before or after an event, follow these steps.
- Step 1: Find the event mentioned in the question. Underline it.
- Step 2: If the question asks what happened before, look in front of the underlined event.
- Step 3: If the question asks what happened after, look after the underlined event.
- Has lines and stanzas
- May rhyme
- Can tell a story
- Onomatopoeia- sound words. Ex: Crash, boom, howl
- Alliteration- the same beginning letter or sound. Ex: Sam strutted and Dan danced.
- Repetition- repeating words Ex: Down, down, down the spider went.
- Simile- comparing two unlike things using like or as. Ex: She was as mad as a bull.
- Metaphor- comparing two unlike things without using like or as. Ex: When she is angry, she is a bull.
- Personification- giving human qualities to nonhuman things. Ex: The wind was crying my name.
- Hyperbole- an extreme exaggeration. Ex: This test is going to ruin me!
Point of View
- 1st person- I, me, or we. The character is telling you his thoughts and feelings.
- 2nd person- You
- 3rd person- They, them, someone’s name.
- Hint: A story may have I in it and someone’s name. The I wins.
- Step 1: Find the relationship between the first two words.
- Are they the same? Opposite?
- Are they part of a group?
- Step 2: Find the word that is needed to match the relationship.
- Example: person: house:: dog: _______
- A person lives in a house. So where does a dog live? A kennel or dog house. Either one of those choices will complete the analogy.
Setting, Characters, Plot
- Setting- Where and when the story takes place. Ex: Outside at night.
- Characters- The people or animals in a story.
- Plot- The events in a story. The plot includes the problem (conflict) and solution (resolution)
- Conflict = problem
- Resolution = solution
- The lesson that the story is trying to teach you. Example: It is better to give than to receive.
- Themes can be stated or implied.
- Stated- the theme is said in the story. You can find it and underline it.
- Implied- the theme is not said in the story. You have to use clues to figure it out.
- Writers use citation to show where they learned information from.
- Citations should include:
- Author’s Name
- Book Title
- Place where book was published
- Publication Date
- Published means it was turned into a book and sold in stores.
Fiction vs Nonfiction
- Fiction: stories for fun. They have characters, settings, and plots.
- Nonfiction: stories that give you new facts and information.