Tuesday, December 3, 2013

Monday, December 2, 2013

Student Writing Samples & Scoring Guides


Study Guides

4th & 5th Grade TCAP Study Guide - ELA

  • Plural Rules (Nouns that are more than 1)
      • Most words add –s
      • Words that end in ch, sh, x, or s add –es
      • Words that end in y, change the y to an i then add es
      • Some words change completely. Ex: man-men and woman-women
      • Some words don’t change at all. Ex: fish, deer, sheep
  • Possessive Rules (When something belongs to the noun)
      • If the noun is singular (one), add ’s  (Example: woman’s)
      • If the noun is plural (two) AND ends in s, just add ’ (Example: travelers’)
      • If the noun is plural (two) and doesn’t end in s, add ’s (Example: men’s)
      • ***Sometimes you will have to figure out if the noun is plural or singular to make your choice.***
    • Must match who they are referring to.
    • Ex: He walked out the door and tripped on her own feet. *Her is wrong. It should be his.*
    • Ex: You will enjoy the park because there are lots of things for them to do. *Them is wrong. It should be you.*

  • The verb must make sense and match the rest of the sentence.
  • TIP: If there is a helping verb (had, have, has) choose the verb with the “n” on the end. Ex: We had not seen that in years.
  • TIP: Read each sentence and slash the ones that you know are incorrect. The best way to choose the correct verb is to see which one makes sense.

  • Adjectives describe nouns. 
  • Add –er to compare two things. (add more if the word is long!) 
    • Example: She was taller than him.
    • Example: She was more beautiful than her friend.
  • Add –est to compare more than two things. (add most if the word is long!) 
    • Example: She was the tallest.
    • Example: She was the most beautiful of all her friends.

  • Adverbs describe verbs.
  • Most end in –ly. 
    • Ex: He was really brave when the monster came at him.

Double Negatives
  • You cannot have two negatives in a sentence. Negatives include: neither, never, not, nothing, or any contraction with not.
  • Two, Too, To
    • Two- #2
    • Too- Too much or Also
    • To- Tells direction 

  • There, they’re, their
    • There- a place
    • They’re- they are
    • Their- shows ownership
  • Your, you’re
    • Your- shows ownership
    • You’re- you are
  • Dates: January 12, 2011
  • Items in a Series: I want bacon, eggs, and cheese.
  • Before Conjunctions: I want to go to the store, but my mom will not take me.
  • After Introductory Words: Even though we were tired, we still played for hours.

  • Punctuation goes inside the quotation marks.
  • Use commas to separate the quote from the speaker.
  • Use a capital letter at the beginning of what is said.
    • Example:   Mom said, “Are you sure you want to go?”
    • Example: “I am sure,” I said.
    • Example: “Okay,” Mom said, “we will go.”

Combining Sentences
  • Sentences can be combined the following ways:
    • By combining the sentences with a conjunction
    • By moving one part of the sentence to the beginning and making it an introductory phrase.

Fixing Run-On Sentences
  • Fix run-on sentences by:
    • Writing two new sentences.
    • Combining the ideas correctly with a conjunction.
    • Making one of the ideas an introductory phrase at the beginning.

  • Common Abbreviations
    • Avenue = Ave.
    • Doctor = Dr.
    • Street = St.
    • Drive = Dr.

Compound Words
  • Words that are made up of two small words. Each word helps determine the meaning of the compound word. Ex: mailbox, horseback

Author’s Purpose
  • To Entertain- telling a story with characters, a setting, and a plot.
  • To Inform- gives the reader true information and facts.
  • To Persuade- is trying to get the reader to do or buy something. Speeches are usually trying to persuade.

Supporting Sentences
  • Sentences that match the main idea and the rest of the paragraph.
    • Step 1: Find the main idea of the paragraph.
    • Step 2: Choose the sentence that matches the main idea.

Context Clues
  • Step 1: Read the entire sentence looking for clues to what the word means.
  • Step 2: Plug all the choices in and see which one makes sense.

  • The person or people reading or listening to your writing.
  • Step 1: What is the writing about?
  • Step 2: Who needs to know this? or Who cares about this?

  • A 1-3 sentence recap of a passage or paragraph.
    • Step 1: Find the main idea.
    • Step 2: Underline important details.
    • Step 3: Include the main idea and details into a complete sentence.
  • Remember: Do this for each paragraph of a passage if the questions asks for a summary of the entire passage.

  • Fact: a statement that can be proven to be true.
  • Opinion: a statement that cannot be proven and often includes how someone feels.

Choosing Visuals/Graphics
  • Sometimes people include visuals or graphics (pictures) with their writing.
    • Step 1: The picture must match the main idea.
    • Step 2: Choose the one that would help the writing the best.

Main Idea
  • What a story or passage is mostly about.
    • Step 1: Underline the key words. (Only the important ones!)
    • Step 2: Write one sentence with the key words.
    • Step 3: Find the choice that best matches your sentence.

Irrelevant Sentences
  • Irrelevant means that it does not match or go along with the rest of the story.
    • Step 1: Find the main idea.
    • Step 2: Find the sentence that does not match the main idea.
  • TIP: The irrelevant sentence may seem like it fits but you have to be very careful.

Concluding Sentence/Conclusion
  • Concluding means the ending or very last sentence.
  • Must match the main idea of the story.
  • Never adds new details to the story.

Transitional Words/Phrases
  • Used at the end of a story or paragraph
    • Therefore, finally, in conclusion, as a result
  • Adding details to a story
    • In addition to, furthermore, similarly, however
  • Remember: Plug all the choices in the sentence and see which one makes since in the sentence AND in the story.

Sequencing Sentences/Paragraphs
  1. Step 1: Read all the steps or sentences.
  • Step 2: Draw your dashes ____ ____ ____ ____
  • Step 3: Read the sentences or paragraphs and put the number in the correct slash.
  • Step 4: Find the answer that matches your slashes.

Reliable Sources
  • Reliable means it is good information to use and you can count on it being correct.
  • Read all the choices and choose the best and most reliable source for the question.

Reference Sources
  • Atlas- book of maps
  • Encyclopedia- gives information on people, places, history and things.
  • Newspaper- gives information on current and local events.
  • Websites- websites that end in .gov, .org, or .edu are the most reliable

Moods and Feelings from Pictures
  • Pictures can often make the viewer feel a certain way or put them in a certain mood.
  • Look at the picture. Write down a few words that come to mind.
  • Look at the choices. Mark off any that are completely wrong.
  • Choose the best one by comparing it to what you thought about the picture and the picture itself.

    • Synonyms- words that mean the same or nearly the same. Ex: sad and depressed
    • Antonyms- words that mean the opposite. Ex: ancient and new

Sequence (Before and After)
  • If a question asks you what happens before or after an event, follow these steps.
    • Step 1: Find the event mentioned in the question. Underline it.
    • Step 2: If the question asks what happened before, look in front of the underlined event.
    • Step 3: If the question asks what happened after, look after the underlined event.

  • Characteristics
    • Has lines and stanzas
    • May rhyme
    • Can tell a story

Sound Devices
  • Onomatopoeia- sound words. Ex: Crash, boom, howl
  • Alliteration- the same beginning letter or sound. Ex: Sam strutted and Dan danced.
  • Repetition- repeating words Ex: Down, down, down the spider went.
Figurative Language
  • Simile- comparing two unlike things using like or as. Ex: She was as mad as a bull.
  • Metaphor- comparing two unlike things without using like or as. Ex: When she is angry, she is a bull.
  • Personification- giving human qualities to nonhuman things. Ex: The wind was crying my name.
  • Hyperbole- an extreme exaggeration. Ex: This test is going to ruin me!

Point of View
  • 1st person- I, me, or we. The character is telling you his thoughts and feelings.
  • 2nd person- You
  • 3rd person- They, them, someone’s name.
  • Hint: A story may have I in it and someone’s name. The I wins.

  • Step 1: Find the relationship between the first two words.
    • Are they the same? Opposite?
    • Are they part of a group?
  • Step 2: Find the word that is needed to match the relationship.
    • Example: person: house:: dog: _______
      • A person lives in a house. So where does a dog live? A kennel or dog house. Either one of those choices will complete the analogy.

Setting, Characters, Plot
  • Setting- Where and when the story takes place. Ex: Outside at night.
  • Characters- The people or animals in a story.
  • Plot- The events in a story. The plot includes the problem (conflict) and solution (resolution)

  • Conflict = problem
  • Resolution = solution

  • The lesson that the story is trying to teach you. Example: It is better to give than to receive.
  • Themes can be stated or implied.
    • Stated- the theme is said in the story. You can find it and underline it.
    • Implied- the theme is not said in the story. You have to use clues to figure it out.

  • Writers use citation to show where they learned information from.
  • Citations should include:
    • Author’s Name
    • Book Title
    • Place where book was published
    • Publisher
    • Publication Date
  • Published means it was turned into a book and sold in stores.

Fiction vs Nonfiction

  • Fiction: stories for fun. They have characters, settings, and plots.
  • Nonfiction: stories that give you new facts and information.

Test Motivation!

Great Intervention/Test Prep Ideas! http://teachinginroom6.blogspot.com/2012/02/test-prep-180-test-prep-stations.html http://teachinginroom6.blogspot.com/2013/01/test-prep-180-comprehension-vs-writing.html http://teachinginroom6.blogspot.com/2012/01/test-prep-180-comprehension-strategies.html

Student Examples of Test Taking Strategies